For more than a century a controversy has raged concerning the origin of the spirituals originally sung by African-Americans in the South and about their relationship to the religious songs of whites. Where did the spirituals of African-Americans come from? What is their relationship, if any, to the music of West Africa and to that of Europe? Do the spirituals of African-Americans exhibit to a high degree or to a low degree cultural traits derived from West Africa? Or are these spirituals primarily borrowings from the culture of the white man? It was at first assumed that Black spirituals represented, in essence, the spontaneous out- burst and expression of the anguish experienced by human beings in bondage, that is, of African- American slaves. An early writer on the topic, James Weldon Johnson, wrote:
"Aframerican folk art, an art by Africa out of America, Negro creative genius working under the spur and backlash of American conditions, is unlike anything else in America or elsewhere, nor could it have been possible in
The tunes and the beats, before 1865
The tunes and the beats of negro spirituals and Gospel songs are highly influenced by the music of their actual cultural environment. It means that their styles are continuously changing.
The very first negro spirituals were inspired by African music even if the tunes were not far from those of hymns. Some of them, which were called shouts were accompanied with typical dancing including hand clapping and foot tapping.
SHOUTSAfter regular a worship service, congregations used to stay for a ring shout. It was a survival of primitive African dance. So, educated ministers and members placed a ban on it. The men and women arranged themselves in a ring. The music started, perhaps with a Spiritual, and the ring began to move, at first slowly, then with quickening pace. The same musical phrase was repeated over and over for hours. This produced an ecstatic state. Women screamed and fell. Men, exhausted, dropped out of the ring
Some African American religious singing at this time was referred as a moan (or a groan). Moaning (or groaning) does not imply pain. It is a kind of blissful rendition of a song, often mixed with humming and spontaneous melodic variation.
The lyrics before 1865
In the early nineteenth century, African Americans were involved in the Second Awakening. They met in camp meetings and sang without any hymnbook. Spontaneous songs were composed on the spot. They were called spiritual songs and the term sperichil (spiritual) appeared for the first time in the book Slave Songs of The United States (by Allen, Ware, Garrison, 1867).
As negro spirituals are Christian songs, most of them concern what the Bible says and how to live with the Spirit of God. For example, the dark days of bondage were enlightened by the hope and faith that God will not leave slaves alone.
By the way, African Americans used to sing outside of churches. During slavery and afterwards, slaves and workers who were working at fields or elsewhere outdoors, were allowed to sing work songs. This was the case, when they had to coordinate their efforts for hauling a fallen tree or any heavy load. Even prisoners used to sing chain gang songs when they worked on the road or on some construction project.
But some drivers also allowed slaves to sing quiet songs, if they were not apparently against slaveholders. Such songs could be sung either by only one soloist or by several slaves. They were used for expressing personal feeling and for cheering one another. So, even at work, slaves could sing secret messages. This was the case of negro spirituals, which were sung at church, in meetings, at work and at home.
The meaning of these songs was most often covert. Therefore, only Christian slaves understood them, and even when ordinary words were used, they reflected personal relationship between the slave singer and God.
The codes of the first negro spirituals are often related with an escape to a free country. For example, a home is a safe place where everyone can live free. So, a home can mean Heaven, but it covertly means a sweet and free country, a haven for slaves.
The ways used by fugitives running to a free country were riding a chariot or a train.
The negro spirituals The Gospel Train and Swing low, sweet chariot which directly refer to the Underground Railroad, an informal organization who helped many slaves to flee.
The words of The Gospel train are She is coming Get onboard Theres room for many more. This is a direct call to go way, by riding a train which stops at stations.
Then, Swing low, sweet chariot refers to Ripley, a station of the Underground Railroad, where fugitive slaves were welcome. This town is atop a hill, by Ohio River, which is not easy to cross. So, to reach this place, fugitives had to wait for help coming from the hill. The words of this spirituals say,I looked over Jordan and what did I see/ Coming for to carry me home/ A band of angels coming after me